One can fully track the raw materials/components that go inside the Production Order and the finished good that these components produce. Moreover, one can track the receipt of the raw materials/components (from the supplier) and the shipment of these raw materials/components (to the client).
When you receive raw materials/components from the Supplier, the serial numbers remarks field needs to be entered at the PO or Receiving Document level. See this article (for Purchase Orders) and this article (for Purchasing Documents) on how to add the serial numbers while receiving from the Supplier.
When you allocate the components inside a Production Order, you can there add the Serial Number(s) separated with comma (,) in the Allocate pop-up. See:
you can track these serial numbers for the raw materials/components under the serial numbers tab of the Production Order. See:
When you receive the finished good inside a Production Order, you can add the S/N of the received finished good. See:
Click here to access a similar article that also provides information related to production with Serial Numbers.